America’s Stonehenge Visit an Ancient Archeological site located in North Salem New Hampshire. It is uncertain if these structures were built by an ancient Native American culture, or by Migrating European cultures. America’s Stonehenge is from an ancient culture dating back over 4,000 years. The people who lived here built astronomical structures and were knowledgeable in Astronomy. Web site provides links to Stonehenge events, activities, schedules and related links.
Anasazi the Ancient Ones Web site compiled by John D. Grahame, and Thomas D. Sisk. The Anasazi or Puebloans, lived throughout the southern United States in the 10th & 11th century. Ancient astronomy was a central part of their culture. The Sun was very important to their culture. We know this from the structures that they built. Many of these structures were used as calendars. Their cities resemble ruins found in the Mayan cities which leads many to believe that they had contact with one another. The web site provides several links for further reading, a glossary and many images.
Chichén-Itzá Web site created by L.C. Swanson. Chichén-Itzá was an ancient Mayan city founded around 400 A.D. Chichén-Itzá means place of the “mouth of the well of the Itzá”. The web site provides discussion and images of many of the structures found in Chichén Viejo, and Chichén Nuevo. Numerous links to related web sights are included.
Inca Astronomy Inca astronomy web site features information with text & drawings that explains many of the Inca’s astronomical constellations. Mentioned are the Radish, Octopus, or Comet, The Great Bird of Nazca, The Mountain, Vega or the 3 Marias, the Tello Obelisk, the Rainbow and the Serpent Coat-of-Arms, The Inca Weeping God, and the Rebellion.
Incan Current Discoveries Comprehensive web site that discusses recent discoveries and research into the Inca Empire. The web site offers many photos, and links to related web sites for further reading.
Maya Astronomy Web site by Michiel Berger on Mayan Astronomy. The content with text and graphics, is from a presentation by Dawn Jenkins, given at February 13, 1995, at a meeting of the Cuyahoga Astronomical Association. Topics covered include, Geographical area of the Mayan culture, Mayan mathematics, Mayan Calendar, Mayan Writing, Mayan Astronomy, and links to related web sites.
Native American Astronomy Web site created by Paula Giese focuses on Lakota Astronomy, constellations, the Bighorn Medicine wheel, Equinoxes, solstices, and star names. Web site is very informative, and includes many images, drawings and links for further reading.
Aristarchus 310-230 BC Aristarchus was a Greek mathematician and astronomer. He was first to propose that we lived in a sun-centered Universe. He is also known for trying to determine the sizes and distances to the sun and moon. His calculations though incorrect was a result of instruments he had available rather than his mathematical calculations. The web site discusses his life an theories, and provides references for further reading.
Archimedes Archimedes 287-212 BC was a Greek mathematician and astronomer. He is known for his mechanical inventions many of which were war machines. He invented the Archimedes screw which is still used today in agriculture. He perfected many theories in geometry and was completely absorbed in mathematical pursuits throughout his life. Archimedes is credited with designing the first planetarium sphere which featured all the constellations. The web site provides a thorough study of Archimedes life, inventions and theories, and related links for further reading.
Heraclitus (535-475 BC) Most of what is known about this Greek philosopher comes from fragments of writings. He is known to have been first to use the term Kosmos in which he describes the world we live in. He believed that matter is in an endless state of change, and is part of an ongoing process. His writings were very influential on other philosophers and mathematicians of his time. The web site provides a look at his life and his writings covering his theories of knowledge, criticism of Ionian philosophy, physical theory, and links to related reading.
Hipparchus Hipparchus 190-120 BC was the greatest astronomer of his time. He made significant contributions to Trigonometry and introduced the division of a circle in to 360 degrees. The Hipparchus Star Catalog supposedly produced in 130 BC, contains approximately 850 stars. Hipparchus is also noted for proposing the theory of precession, and for calculating the length of a year to within 6 minutes. The web site provides a background on his work, his theories and mathematics, as well as several links to related information for further study.
Claudius Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemaeus was born in Egypt sometime close to 85 A.D. He was of Greek heritage and lived in Alexandria, Egypt, and he was a citizen of Rome. He was one of the most influential astronomers, and geographers of his time. He is well known for his “Almagest”, the earliest of Ptolemy’s works which explains in detail his mathematical theories of the motions of the Sun, Moon, and planets. Ptolemy died sometime around 165 A.D. The web site provides numerous links to related sources.
580-507 BC was a mathematician who had a strong influence on Greek culture, as well as later period mathematicians such as Newton and Einstein. He developed very profound observations of our Universe. He is known for discovering many basic principles of Geometry, and mathematical concepts of music scales. He realized that the Earth is a round sphere, and that Venus was both a morning and evening star. He believed that our Universe and planets could be explained with mathematical concepts. The web site offers many links for related reading.
Stonehenge UK Stonehenge is a famous archeological site located in Amesbury, Wiltshire, in Southern England. It is believed to date back to 2950-2900 BCE. Stonehenge was more than a temple, it was an astronomical calculator. It is believed to have been used to predict solar eclipses, and make lunar and solar calculations. The web site offers a discussion on Stonehenge, it’s various phases of construction, many images and additional links are included.
Thales Thales 624-547 BC was a Greek Philosopher scientist and mathematician. He is reported to have predicted a solar eclipse in 585 BC. He is credited with five elements of geometry, which he learned from the Egyptians. He is reported to have used geometry to measure the height of the Pyramids in Egypt. The web site offers a biography of Thales with links to related reading.
Tholos at Epidaurus The Tholos temple is an ancient Greek structure built in Delphi, Greece between 350-360 BC. Most of the original structures have collapsed but it remains an impressive monument. This structure is part of the Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, which is thought to have been a place of worship. The Tholos contains many architectural elements and murals which correlate to many ancient astronomical themes. An informative web site which offers a complete description of the temple with text, many images and drawings.
Abu Abdullah Al-Battani 858-929 A.D. Abu Abdullah Al Battani born in Harran and later of Samarra, was a famous astronomer, mathematician and astrologer, and is considered to be a very important figure in Islamic astronomy. He made many discoveries in lunar and planetary orbits, as well as writing many books in mathematics and astronomy.
Ancient Horizons From StarDate University of Texas and the McDonald Observatory. Ancient Horizons is a planetarium program produced by StarDate and the Science Museum of Virginia, that presents the Egyptian view of order and the cosmos, with information on mythology and constellations, the creation of the calendar, and a struggle involving the concept of the sun. The website provides the program text, additional details on Egyptian astronomy, and information on how you can order your own copy of the audio portions of the program on CD. Ancient Roots provides a discussion of Egyptian astronomy linked with a glossary, photos, teacher guides and activities, and an assortment of links to related web sites, and books on ancient Egyptian astronomy.
Babylonians The Babylonian civilization flourished from the 18th to the 6th century BC in what is now Iraq. Babylonian astronomers made the first methodical observations of celestial objects. This led to the creation of the Babylonian calendars and, the zodiac system used to describe the positions of planets based on these observations.
Babylonian mathematics Web site from MacTutor University of St. Andrews. Discusses Babylonian mathematics, and provides references for further reading.
Berosus Berosus was a Babylonian historian and priest. His date of birth and death is uncertain, but he did live during the time of Alexander (356-326 BC). He is often quoted by historians as Berosus the astronomer. He lived in Athens, Greece where knowledge of his keen astronomical observations made him famous among the Greek philosophers and mathematicians of the time.
Astronomy in Japan Web site compiled by Steve Renshaw and Saori Ihara. Discusses Japanese starlore and history, Japanese astronomers, discovers of comets, and archeological sites in Kyoto, Nara, and Asuka. Web site provides text, photos, and numerous links.
Chinese Astronomers Web site by S.Y. Ho provides a brief introduction to Chinese calendars and astronomers. Also additional links for further reference. Most of the text is available in English, nice images provided.
The Kanayama Megaliths and Solar Calendar The Kanayama megaliths are located in Kanayama Town, a mountainous area of central Japan. These ancient stone structures are similar to the megaliths at UK Stonehenge. The Kanayama stones were designed and built to serve as solar calendars. These stone monuments are believed to have been built 4-5,000 years ago during the mid-Jomon Period. The web site available in English provides background information, text, diagrams, photos of the structures, and links to related web sites.
Lunar Calendar in Japan Steve Renshaw and Saori Ihara provide a look at the Lunar calendar, solar names, names of months, the solar system and names of days, calendar reform in Japan, and Matasaburou’s Calendar. Web site provides text, drawings and links to related web sites.
Su Song’s Astronomical Clock Su Song was a Chinese expert in the calculation of calendars. He built an advanced astronomical clock in 1088 BC during the Shang dynasty. The clock was a precise instrument used for astronomical observations and timekeeping. The article discusses the clock Su Song and the attempts to recreate a replica of this clock in present day by Han Pao-Te in 1990. Currently related links are unavailable.
Johann Bayer 1572-1625 Johann Bayer is well known for his star catalog Uranometria which was published in 1603. Uranometria is significant in that Bayer applied lower case Greek letters to stars that are visible to the naked eye. Today we still use these designations. The web site offers many links for further reading.
Johann E. Bode 1747-1826 Johann E. Bode was a self-taught astronomer. He is noted for his star atlas published in 1801 Uranographia. It was an immense contribution to astronomy, providing the positions of more than 17,000 stars, every constellation known, and 2,500 nebulae. In 1779 Bode discovered the comet (C/1779 A1, 1779 Bode). He also discovered M-81 known as Bodes Nebulae and M-82 in 1774. The web site offers numerous links to related reading.
Tycho Brahe 1546-1601 Tycho Brahe designed many astronomical instruments for observing before the invention of the telescope. Tycho believed that the earth was fixed in the center of the world, with the Moon and Sun orbiting around it. Brahe published his first star catalog Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmatain (“Introductory Exercises Toward a Restored Astronomy”) in 1602 containing 777 stars. He published many other works as well. The Galileo web site from Rice University provides text, images and links to related web sites.
Nicholas Copernicus 1473-1543 Revolutionized modern thinking with his work “De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium”, in which he theorized that the Earth isn’t the center of the Universe, but in fact circles the Sun. An intriguing astronomer who made his celestial observations with the naked eye as it would be another 100 years before the first telescopes were invented. Web site provides numerous links for further reading.
John Flamsteed 1646-1719 Flamsteed is noted for his work ” Historia Coelestis Britannica” (British Catalog of the Heavens) published in 1725 which contained data on 3000 stars. Flamsteed also observed Uranus in 1690 but at the time he listed it as the star, 34 Tauri. The web site from SEDS offers several links to related information.
Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 A very thorough web site from Rice University on one of the leading thinkers in the history of Astronomy. The web site includes a comprehensive biography of Galileo, a series of pages describing his villa and research, information about his daughter, many images, diagrams, and a vast collection of links for further resources.
Sir Edmund Halley 1656-1742 Sir Edmund Halley is well known for Halley’s Comet which he predicted would be visible in 1758 (after his death) This comet was named in his honor. He traveled extensively on sailing ships and developed the first navigational charts with equal lines of declination. He also studied Archeology, Geophysics, and Historical Astronomy. The web site offers drawings and numerous links for further reading.
Christiaan Huygens 1629-1695 Christiaan Huygens is known for his discovery of Titan Saturn’s first moon, and the shape of Saturn’s rings. He also greatly improved the first telescopes, and methods for grinding lenses. He is invented the first pendulum clock. He discovered the Orion Nebula in 1656. The web site offers links to related web sites for further reading.
Sir William Herschel 1738-1822 William and his sister Caroline made many significant discoveries to modern astronomy. He discovered Uranus in 1781 with a telescope he had made himself. He also discovered many new nebulae, clusters of stars and binary stars, and is famous for the Herschel Catalog of Stars. The web site offers drawings and several links for further reading.
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 Astronomer, mathematician, who was one of the first astronomer/scientists of his era to support the “Copernican System”. He is renowned for advancing modern astronomy by discovering the three laws of planetary motion. Links for further reading and resources.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange 1736-1813 Joseph-Louis Lagrange was an Italian mathematician and astronomer. He is most famous for discovering five special points in the vicinity of two orbiting masses where a third, smaller mass can orbit at a fixed distance from the larger masses. He published this work in “Mécanique Analytique” in 1788.These are known as Lagrange points, and are often referred to in orbits of artificial satellites. The web site offers numerous links for further reading.
Charles Messier 1730-1817 Charles Messier is credited with the discovery of 20 comets, 13 were original discoveries. He is also famous for his Catalog of Nebulae and Star Clusters now known as the Messier Catalog or Messier objects. Amateur astronomers use this catalog in a variety of formats today as an aid in observing. His catalog contains 110 objects of which M-102 is a duplicate observation of M-101. The web site offers a thorough biography with text, drawings, and images. Numerous links to related web sites.
Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727 Sir Isaac Newton developed many revolutionary ideas in mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy before the age of 25 years old. Newton is credited with the discovery that white light is a mixture of different rays that produce different colors. Newton began to formulate his theories on Gravitation around 1660. He published his work on gravity in “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” ( Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) in 1687. The web site offers a link to the Newton Institute home page and several links to related web sites.
Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers 1758–1840 Olbers is known for originating the first method to calculate the orbits of comets. He also discovered two asteroids, Pallas and Vesta, and several comets. The comet 13P/Olbers is named in his honor. He is best remembered for “Olbers Paradox”, which examines the problem, why is the sky dark at night?
Mahmoud AI-Falaki (1815-1885) Mahmoud AL-Falaki was an Egyptian astronomer who conducted research in compiling calendars, magnetic fields, and observing solar eclipses.
Edward Emerson Barnard (1857-1923) Edward Barnard is known for exceptional skills in observational astronomy. He discovered 8 comets and Almathea the fifth moon of Jupiter. He was pioneer in wide-field photography. Barnard conducted his studies at Lick Observatory and Yerkes Observatory. He used the telescope at Yerkes to measure stellar positions and during this research he discovered Barnard’s star. The web site offers several photographs, a biography of Barnard, and links to related reading.
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995) Chandrasekhar’s is famous for his research which describes the Chandrasekhar limit, which is the largest mass a white dwarf can attain. He made many significant contributions in physics including stellar interiors, black holes, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability. He worked at Yerkes Observatory and the University of Chicago. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1983 for Physics. The Chandra X-Ray Telescope is named in his honor. The web site provides links to related web sites and further reading.
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is one of the most notable figures of modern times. He is the father of the theory of relativity and made major contributions to quantum theory. He became a Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton University in 1932. He immigrated to the United States in 1933. Albert was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. After his death his papers and research documents were given to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where they are maintained today in an archive. The web site includes links to his research, photos, and numerous links to related web sites.
Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) excelled in both the theoretical and experimental areas of physics. He was an expert in neutron research. Fermi led the development of the atomic bomb program at the University of Chicago. On December 2, 1942 this was accomplished with the first controlled self-sustaining chain reaction. Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1938.
Richard Feynman Richard Feynman (1918-1988) is credited with the development of the science of quantum electrodynamics, which joins relativity and quantum theory with electromagnetism. He made contributions to the development of the atomic bomb. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1965 for physics for contributions made to the field of electrodynamics. The web site offers web pages featuring information about his life and work, diagrams that explain some of theories, and many links to related web sites.
Dr. Robert H. Goddard Robert Goddard (1882-1945) is considered the father of modern rocket propulsion in America. He began experimenting with rocket propulsion in 1915. Dr. Goddard tested his first liquid-fuel rocket in 1926 in Auburn, Massachusetts. He successfully launched 35 liquid-fueled rockets during his life. He is credited with 214 patents, of which 131 were filed after his death. The web site consists of several pages, and offers images, drawings, links to Goddard’s publications, and numerous links for further reading.
George Ellery Hale George Hale (1868-1938) is noted for inventing the spectroheliograph. Hale was influential in establishing the Yerkes Observatory and at the age of 24 became it’s first director. The Yerkes telescope had a 40″ mirror and at the time was the largest telescope in the world. Later he would go to California where he established the Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory in 1904.The web site provides a biography, photos, and numerous links for further references.
Dr. Stephen Hawking Dr. Hawking is a world renowned Author and Physicist, and one of the leading figures today in modern Cosmology. He has published numerous books and articles. Hawking has opened the world of Astrophysics and Relativity to the general public as a result of his endearing nature and his award winning prose. His web site contains PDF files of many of his lectures, Physics Colloquiums, and a picture gallery.
Edwin Hubble Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) was the first Astronomer to prove that our Universe is expanding. Hubble provided the world with the first real evidence of the nature of our expanding Universe and the existence of multiple Galaxies. Prior to his research it was believed that the entire Cosmos was contained in our own Milky Way galaxy. Hubble’s research led to the concept of the Big Bang, our expanding Universe, and the science of Cosmology. The web site provides several links for further reading.
Michio Kaku Dr. Kaku is a world renowned authority and author in Theoretical Physics and the Environment. His web site contains many of his articles, transcripts from his appearances on documentaries, Science programs, and network television. Also a chat room and forums, links to many related web sites and educational resources for further study.
Percival Lowell Percival Lowell (1855-1916) was a passionate amateur astronomer. In 1894 he established the Lowell Observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona. Percival spent many years studying Mars from his observatory using the 24″ Clark telescope. He thought that Mars had canals and intelligent life. He wrote 3 books between 1895 & 1905 about his theories of life on Mars. Today the Lowell observatory continues to operate and conducts astronomical research in many areas. The Lowell web site offers many photos and links to the Observatory for further reading.
NASA Astronaut Biographies NASA web site provides biographical information on the members of the space flight crews and candidates for future missions in NASA’s space flight program. Includes Career Astronauts, Astronaut Candidates, Cosmonauts, Payload Specialists, Astronaut Information, Former and deceased astronauts, and numerous links to related web sites and resources.
William Parsons William Parsons (1800-1867) Lord Rosse built two large telescopes at Birr Castle in Ireland. The first a 36″ reflector built in 1839 followed by a 72″ (the Leviathan of Parsontown) in 1845. Lord Rosse was able to observe and study nebulae in detail for the first time proving that they some were composed of stars and others were made of gas and stellar dust. In April of 1845 Parsons made a significant discovery while observing M-51, when he realized that it was a spiral galaxy. Up until this time they were thought to be Nebulae. The Birr Castle web site provides a history of the observatory and astronomers, and numerous links to related reading.
Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947) focused on studies in Thermodynamics. He made significant contributions to modern Physical Chemistry and Physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918.The web site provides numerous images and links to related web sites for further reading.
Reuven Ramaty Reuven Ramaty (1937-2001) was a pioneer in the fields of solar physics, gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear astrophysics, and cosmic rays, and a leading theorist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center for more than 30 years. He was one of the founding members of the HESSI spacecraft team.
Carl Sagan Dr. Carl Sagan (1934-1996) was a world renowned Astronomer, Author, Educator, Lecturer, and co-founder of the Planetary Society. Sagan played a leading role in NASA’s Mariner, Viking, Voyager, and Galileo missions. During his lifetime Dr. Sagan received numerous awards from NASA, and received many honorary degrees from a number of Colleges & Universities. The Carl Sagan web site provides links to his work and several links to related web sites.
Ancient Astronomy From Prof. Bryan E. Penprase of the Pomona College Department of Astronomy & Physics. Interactive guide to archeoastronomy covering all the ancient cultures of the world. Collaboration of tutorials and links for further reading.
Ancient Megaliths in Ireland Web site discusses ancient Megalith sites found in Ireland and their significance. Site provides text, images, drawings, photo gallery, and several links to related web sites.
Antique Telescope Society The Antique Telescope Society is an international organization that was founded in 1991. The society has over 200 members world wide, and publishes a quarterly journal. The society membership is open to anyone with an interest in antique telescopes, binoculars instruments, books, and atlases. The society web site offers membership information, techniques & tips, a FAQ’s, image gallery, biographies of historical figures, resources for research, and several links to related web sites.
Archaeoastronomy in the UK Web site created by Martin Powell provides a look at Archaeoastronomy in the southern Wales area of England. Included are discussions of cairns, barrows, standing stones and ring enclosures.
The Astrolabe The Astrolabe is an ancient astronomical instrument used to tell time, determine the length of a day, and to simulate movement of celestial objects. These were first used by ancient Greek astronomers. The Astrolabe web site offers a thorough discussion of the instrument and it’s history. Includes pictures and links to related reading. You can assemble one of your own by visiting the University of Hawaii web site and download the Astrolabe templates.
Encyclopedia Astronautica Mark Wade’s excellent website provides an extensive history of Spaceflight. Website features: Astronauts, Soviet Space program, Chinese Space program, Rocketry, Missiles, Missions, Spacecraft, current Space news, Lunar & Mars missions, Women in Space, and a vast selection of hundreds of additional links for reference.
Astronomy Historical & Cultural Perspectives From the Amateur Astronomy Foundation web pages discussing history of Western astronomy, Jewish astronomy, Korean astronomy, Mayan astronomy, Eastern Indian astronomy, Mesopotamia astronomy, calendars, and telescope history.
Chinese Astronomy Web site from the Chinese Astronomical Society provides images of several ancient Chinese astronomical instruments and structures. Includes Dengfeng Star Observing Platform (1279 AD) , Beijing Observatory (1442 AD), and several other images of ancient artifacts. No text, links back to Chinese Astronomical Society.
Franz Niklaus König’s Celestial Atlas Franz Niklaus König (1765-1832) was a Swiss painter and printmaker. This web site contains scanned images from his atlas which was published in 1826. Plates 28 & 29 are missing. The web site offered in English, French, and German was compiled by Thomas Klöti of the Municipal and University Library of Berne, Switzerland. Some of the text is in German.
Epact Scientific Instruments Online catalog of Medieval & Renaissance European Scientific Instruments compiled by the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. This beautiful collection features instruments from four European museums.
The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlas From the Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering and Technology. Linda Hall Library is an independent research library of science, engineering and technology. They provide an online collection of an exhibit containing forty-three star atlases and maps, covering the period from 1482 to 1851. Beautiful images from old world astronomers.
Greek Astronomy and the stars Web site from Michael Fowler, University of Virginia provides a brief introduction to the Greeks and their use of Geometry to understand the cycles of stars and planets. Discusses Plato, Eudoxus, and Aristotle.
Harmonia Macrocosmica Harmonia Macrocosmica by Andreas Cellarius, first published in 1660, is an atlas of the heavens as seen by the astronomers of the times: Copernicus, Ptolemy, Brahe, and Aratus. The web site provides digital versions of the plates, Latin text (English translation available) and also includes a bio of Andreas Cellarius (1596-1665).This web site provides an extensive compilation of resources to aid in the study of the History of Astronomy. The collection of resources are from various web sites available on the Internet. Topics include general resources, Observatories, Archives and Libraries, Museums, Historical Places, Exhibits, and links to Societies and Organizations of Astronomy History.
History of Space Exploration A very comprehensive web site compiled by Calvin J. Hamilton, offering a Chronological History of Space Exploration & Spaceflight. Dates from 1912-2005, includes images and links to related web sites.
ISAAC Official web site of the Center for Archeoastronomy and the International Society for Archeoastronomy and Astronomy The web site offers a brief background in the science of archeoastronomy. Also a number of links to related web sites for further reading are provided. The ISAAC publishes a journal Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture and the Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy Newsletter, essays from which are available to read on the website.
Megaliths in Egypt Web site discusses Megaliths and Neolithic Astronomy in Southern Egypt. The Nabta Playa area is rich with archaeological evidence of the oldest known astronomically aligned stones in the world. These structures were built over 1,000 years before Stonehenge in the UK. Web site provides text and photos of the site, with links and references for further reading.
Mesoamerica Web site created by James Q. Jacobs. Photo gallery, and articles discussing Mesoamerican civilizations. Includes Teotihuacan, Palenque, Izapa, Chichen Itza, and Uxmal. Also discusses ancient artifacts, and stone sculptures, additional links provided for further reading. Very engaging web site.
Prof. Clive L. Ruggles Dr. Ruggles is a professor in Archaeoastronomy at the School of Archaeology & Ancient History, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. His web site provides provides access to his collection of some 1100 images of archaeological and archaeastronomical interest. Also links to references, and archeoastronomy software. Images from 3100 images of archaeological sites and artifacts taken by members of the School.
Prof. Gene Smith’s History of Astronomy Dr. Gene Smith is a professor in Physics at the University of California, San Diego. He provides a large reference guide of several web pages on historical figures in astronomy. Also numerous links to outside related web sites.
Solar Astronomy in the Prehistoric Southwest Web site compiled by P. Charbonneau, T. Bogdan, and O.R. White at UCAR. The site provides a series of slides featuring photos from various archaeastronomical sites in the southwestern United States. Includes Anasazi, Chaco Canyon, Hopi and numerous other sites. Text, photos and references for further reading are available.
Starry Messenger Web site from the Department of History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Cambridge. The web site offers a look at the early history of astronomy. Features astronomy and the use of astronomical instruments and early astronomers. Brief biographies of Ptolemy, Hipparchus, Copernicus, and Brahe. Instruments, Astronomical Tables, Mathematical Techniques, Sundials, and many related topics. Links to images and drawings and further reference materials.
Stone Pages Wonderful web site from Paola Arosio & Diego Meozzi. An online guide of over 2000 web pages to Stonehenge, stone circles, dolmens, ancient standing stones, cairns, barrows, hillforts and archaeology of megalithic Europe. Information on 529 archeological sites in England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. Huge database of images and text provides a thorough background in megalithic sites. Large database of related links, archeology news, forum, and a glossary.
Venus and the Mayans Web site by David Rosenthal documenting the connection between the Mayan culture and the planet Venus. The author tells of his visit to The Palace of the Governor, in Uxmal the capital of an ancient city-state in western Yucatán, The Palace contains more than 350 Venus-related glyphs adorning its architecture. The web site provides a fascinating look at this Mayan structure.
In a recent article at Sky & Telescope magazine discussing the Women in Astronomy Conference held in June 2003, some interesting points were made. Rachel Ivie of the American Institute of Physics’ Statistics Group showed that the proportion of women in astronomy has shown an overall increase since 1958. Women now earn 22 percent of all astronomy doctorates and make up 14 percent of faculty. Numbers from the American Astronomical Society (AAS) show even more promise — nearly 60 percent of the astronomers in the youngest age bracket (21–23) are women. Astronomers between ages 23 and 28 are almost 40 percent female. Click here to read the full article at Sky & Telescope
AAS Committee on the Status of Women Web site from the AAS provides information discussing the status of Women in Astronomy. The Committee was created by the AAS to recommend to the AAS Council practical measures that can be taken to improve the status of women in astronomy and encourage their entry into this field. Topics & features include a Women in Astronomy database, Publications, Women in Astronomy Meetings, Women in Astronomy/Science statistics, & Women and Science Links.
Dr. Margaret Burbidge From the NASA Astrophysics Data System autobiography of Margaret Burbidge. Margaret was born on August 12, 1919 in Davenport, England and received her doctoral degree at the University of London in 1948. In 1970 she was named the director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. She was the first woman astronomer to be allowed to use the Mt Wilson 100 inch Hooker telescope in 1955. Dr. Burbidge has made vast contributions to our understanding of the chemical composition of stars. She has achieved particular renown for the spectroscopic studies of quasars which she continues research in today as one of the lead investigators on the Hubble Space Telescope.
CSWP Committee on the Status of Women in Physics was founded in 1972 to address the encouragement and career development of women physicists. The CSWP web site is large and offers numerous web pages providing information for women & minorities interested in pursuing a career in Physics. Topics include an overview of the program, educational links & programs for educators, resources and links to related web sites, outreach resources and speakers, and the CSWP newsletter “Gazette”, is available in a PDF format. An outstanding web site for physics teachers, and students.
Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941) Was an American astronomer born in Dover, DE. She was educated at Wellesley and Radcliffe colleges. Annie like Henrietta Leavitt was hearing impaired. She was an assistant at the Harvard College Observatory from 1897 until 1911, when she was appointed curator of astronomical photographs. She was responsible for the photographic discovery of 5 novas and about 300 variable stars. She is best known for compiling a bibliography of about 200,000 references to variable stars and for completing a catalog of more than 350,000 stellar spectra; the catalog is still accepted as an international standard. She was also the first woman to receive an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Oxford in 1925.
Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics Web site from UCLA Library offers an archive of women in Physics up to 1976. Fascinating site provides biographies, text, publications & papers, and important contributions by 86 women Physicists. Searchable archives, images, books, and numerous links.
Contributions of Women to the United States Naval Observatory Web site compiled by Merri Sue Carter provides information & brief bios of obscure women astronomers who worked at the USNO before 1920. Although the observatory is one of the oldest scientific institutions in the United States, the contributions made by women staff members was confined to the last 100 years. According to Merri “This was in part due to the restrictions placed on women by society, as well as those on women in a military institution, and those imposed by the mission of the Observatory.” Not a single observation at the Naval Observatory was made by a woman until after World War I. Women were not allowed to observe because, “It would be immoral for women to be alone amongst the equipment at night.” And “Women did not have the abilities that would be required to observe nights.” An interesting web site providing insight into the early history of the USNO and 12 of the women astronomers.
Dr. Sandra Faber Dr. Sandra Faber is a former student of Dr. Vera Rubin. She is a University Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics Astronomer, at UC Observatories/Lick Observatory. Her research focuses on the formation and evolution of galaxies and the evolution of structure in the universe.
Dr. Anne Kinney Dr. Anne Kinney is the Director of the NASA Origins program as well as her work on the Hubble telescope, Chandra X-ray telescope, Next Generation Space Telescope, Gravity Probe-B, and Planet Finder, to find and characterize Earth-like planets. Dr Kinney pursued her interest at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she received a degree in physics and astronomy. After several years study at the Niels Bohr Institute she attended New York University her Ph.D. in physics.
Williamina Paton Fleming (1857-1911) Fleming discovered more than 300 variable stars, 10 novae, and 59 gaseous nebulae, and compiled lists of thousands of stars with peculiar spectra. The Harvard web site provides a brief biography and photos.
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900 – 1979) Cecilia Payne was born May 10,1900 in Wendover, England. She was educated at and received her bachelors degree from Newnham College in Cambridge, England in 1923 and her doctorate degree from Radcliff in 1925. She was the first woman to become a full professor at Harvard University in 1938. Her research at Harvard focused on stellar spectra led to her theory that Hydrogen and Helium were the most abundant elements in stars in spite of their differences in appearance. She was the first woman scientist to be awarded the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship from the American Astronomical Society in 1977 for her research.
Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) Caroline Herschel was the sister of Sir William Herschel. In 1783 she discovered three nebulae. On August 1, 1786, Caroline discovered her first comet, Comet Herschel (C/1786 P1), and became history’s first women with this distinction. She discovered many other comets as well. The web site provides several links to related web sites for further reading.
Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) During her career at the Harvard Observatory, Leavitt discovered more than 2,400 variable stars, about half of the known total in her day. Leavitt’s is known for discovering “dwarf white stars”. The web site provides several links to related web sites for further reading.
Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) Maria Mitchell was America’s first professional woman astronomer and astronomy professor. Maria discovered Comet Mitchell (C/1847VI) on October 1, 1847. The Maria Mitchell Observatory used a 7.5-inch Alvan Clarke telescope. Today the Maria Mitchell Observatory continues to conduct astronomical research in Cosmology, variable stars, comets, active galaxies and other areas. The web site provides background information about Maria, links to the observatory, and information about the observatories programs, museum, and research.
Ellen Ochoa Ellen Ochoa was the first Hispanic woman ever to be accepted into the NASA space shuttle program. Ellen was selected for the astronaut program in 1990, and flew in her first space mission (STS-56) in 1993. Other space shuttle missions: STS-66, STS-96, STS-110. Ellen She is a co-inventor on three patents for an optical inspection system, an optical object recognition method, and a method for noise removal in images. She graduated from Stanford University in 1981 and 1985, with a master of science degree and doctorate in electrical engineering. Currently she is the Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center.
Dr. Sally Kristen Ride Dr. Ride was the first American female astronaut in Space. Dr. Ride joined NASA in 1977. She was a mission specialist on the Challenger space shuttle. Dr. Ride retired from NASA in 1987. Dr. Ride was inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame at Kennedy Space Center on June 21, 2003.
Dorothea Klumpke Roberts (1861-1942) Dorothea Klumpke Roberts was born on August 9, 1861 in San Francisco, CA. Educated in Europe she earned a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Paris in 1886. Early in her career as an astronomer at the Paris Observatory she measured star positions, studied stellar spectrums, and meteorites. Dorothea was elected as Director of the Bureau of Measurements at the Paris Observatory in 1891. She enjoyed a long and distinguished career during which she published two photographic atlases and associated catalogues of deep sky objects as a tribute to her husband Dr. Isaac Roberts. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific awards the Klumpke-Roberts Award in her honor. Minor Planets MP 339 Dorothea and MP 1040 Klumpkea were named in her honor.
Dr. Vera Rubin Dr. Vera Rubin is a world renowned leader in the field of Astrophysics. In 1965 she became the first women permitted to observe at Palomar Observatory. Dr. Rubin is credited with proving the existence of “dark matter,” or nonluminous mass, thus forever altering our perceptions of the universe. Web site from UCLA Physics Dept. contains links to many of her articles and a bibliography of her research publications.
Dr. Carolyn Shoemaker Dr. Carolyn Shoemaker has discovered more than 800 asteroids and 32 comets. Additional fame comes from her co-discovery, with her husband Gene Shoemaker, and David Levy, of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1993. Dr. Shoemaker is a visiting scientist at the Branch of Astrogeology at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona, and a staff member at Lowell Observatory.
Dr. Jill Cornell Tarter Dr. Jill C. Tarter’s major field of study is Theoretical High-Energy Astrophysics. In 1986, Dr. Frank Drake and Tarter formed the SETI Institute to coordinate research. Dr. Tarter oversees Project Phoenix which began observations in February, 1995 using the Parkes 210 foot radio telescope in New South Wales, Australia.
Women in Astronomy Conference 2003 Web site for the Women in Astronomy Conference June 27-28, 2003, held in Pasadena, CA. The web site includes a list of the WIA committee members, & organizers, list of participants (167), a picture gallery of the conference, online copies of the presentations from the conference, short bios of the speakers, the WIA Poster, and links to related web sites.
Women of NASA NASA websites which profiles women at NASA. This all inclusive list provides backgrounds on many women of NASA, not just women astronauts. It includes Scientists, Computer Engineers and Programmers, Educators, Outreach, Shuttle Engineers, and many other categories. The web site provides numerous links to related information and resources.
Women in Aviation Women In Aviation International (WIA) began in 1990 and was formally established in 1994 to encourage women to seek opportunities in aviation. The WIA web site offers links to conferences, membership, scholarships, events, online resources, and the WAI magazine.